History and Evolution of 3G Technology: 3G technology was introduced to fulfill the needs of high speed transfer of data over the smart phones. A smart phone is combination of PDA, Blackberries, i-Phones etc, and different mobile applications used by mentioned phones. NTT DoCoMo launched the first 3G network in Japan, in the year 2001. It was branded as FOMA(Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access) and was based on W-CDMA technology. In 2005, there were 23 networks worldwide, operating 3G technology. Telenor launched the first commercial 3G network in Europe.
What is 3G Technology: 3G stands for Third Generation (of mobile phones) and it enables increased data-handling rates and high speed bandwidth. 3G is a network protocol which refers to the generations of mobile phones and telecommunication equipments which are compatible with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) standards stated by International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Because of this technology users can use many advanced features like video conference calling, video Streaming, video calls and enhanced web browsing capabilities. The older versions of this technology were also able to carry voice but they were unable to transfer data over this network.
One of its key visions is to provide seamless global roaming, enabling users to move across borders while using the same number and handset. Our mobile phones run on spectrums which is difference between higher & lower frequencies. To use 3G technology on the cell phone huge bandwidth is needed, this bandwidth can be calculated from the difference of high and low frequencies. The most expected range of bandwidth to work with 3G technology could be as much as 15-20 Mhz. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is now a day’s most famous part of 3G cell phone technologies. The highlight of 3G technology is its video telephony technology. Today this wireless technology has also enabled video broadcast and data-intensive services such as stock transactions, e-learning and telemedicine.
Birth of IMT-2000: concept of IMT was first introduced in the mid of 1980’s at ITU. From that time developers were working very hard with this technology so that its standards can be improved. Once when all the standards were approved from the authorities then it start working for next generation systems and named as IMT-2000. According to the standards of technical specifications the spectrum for 3G technology was between 400 MHz and 3 GHz which suites this technology most. IMT-2000 is the result of collaboration of many entities, inside the ITU (ITU-R and ITU-T), and outside the ITU (3GPP, 3GPP2, UWCC and so on).
Other contributors of 3G technology include:
CDMA2000 – Code Division Multiple Access
TD-SCDMA – Time-division Synchronous Code-division Multiple Access
W-CDMA (UMTS) – Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
Advantages of 3G Technology: all the functions performed in 3G are much faster than the previous networks. Other advantages of this technology include
- 3G mobile can be used as a modem for computers and then internet can be accessed at high speed on them.
- 3G networks use IP connectivity, which is packet based.
- Instant messaging with video/audio clips.
- Fast downloads of large files such as faxes and PowerPoint files.
- Access to corporate applications.
- The quality of voice and video calls is high in 3G technology.
- Users can view live TV on mobile phones.
- The increased bit rate improved the speed of internet and some other applications commonly used by users.
- Through this technology sharing of data becomes very easy.
- 3G allows users to be online all the time.
- Its mobile office services like virtual banking and online selling has improved the use of this technology.
Disadvantage of 3G Technology:
- The biggest issue linked with the use of this technology is cost. The maintenance of this technology is higher than the previous technologies.
- To access full strength of signals base station should be closer to the user.
- Service provider has to pay high amount for 3G licensing and agreements.
- High power consumption