On TCP/IP, each and every computer has a unique address in numeric known as internet protocol address which makes address data packages to a this recipient. Four octets separated by dots in an IP address. An octet is of 8 digit binary number which is equivalent to decimal numbers form zero to 255. Four decimals separated by dots make the reading and writing of IP more convenient and known as dotted decimal notion.
IP address in binary and dotted-decimal notation.
In an IP address is allocated to each and every computer or device, called host in a local area network (LAN). IP address must be unique to each host. In case one IP address is assigned to two hosts then the data will be picked up randomly by any one of them thus causing network irregularities.
Moreover, a device that has more than one adopter and belongs to more than one network and serves as router to another network. On each network, each adopter must be assigned private IP address. One part of IP address is allocated to the network where the other part is allocated to the individual host. Network prefix is the network number field. By utilizing masks of subnet as a decipher key, the routers calculate where to end the network part and where to begin the host part. It is worth noticing that all hosts on a network are assigned same network number but their host number is unique. The network part of the IP address is inherited by the systems in the network hierarchy.
The flexibility necessary to support networks of different sizes, IP addresses are of three classes: A, B and C. at various points, boundary between each network portion and the host portion is build up by these classes which makes them appropriate for changing sizes of networks.
Class A is used by relatively large companies as it allows more than 16 million hosts. Class B manages 16,384 hosts per network where Class C is used 254 hosts and is employed in small or middle size organizations.
IP Subnetting :
Segment of a network is called subnetting. It divides the physical network into smaller logical networks to ensure security and to improve the performance of the network. The division of network in segments is helpful in:
- If used in combination with a switch, it decreases the number of broadcast that decreases network traffic, and
- To exceed the limitation in local network
Subnet masks are used to create subnets that divide network number of single Class A, Class B and Class C into smaller pieces and allow the organization to (without getting a new network number via ISP) add subnets. Subnets can also be subnetted into more sub-subnets. They were made to fulfill the deficiency of IP addresses on internet.
The IP address is composed of network part and host part. A subnet usually borrows bits from the host part of the IP address and uses them to designate to one or more than one smaller secondary networks, subnets that exist within the original network. Network prefix combined with subnet number is known as extended network prefix or network number.
Just like IP addresses, subnet masks is composed of four numbers of eight digits where dots are used to separate them. To decide how an IP address will be divided into host part and extended network prefix, a 32-bit subnet mask is used as a deciphering key. It is used by routers and network devices to determine where traffic should be routed to.
Thus IP addresses and subnetting have addressed a number of issues in the digital world and helped us by reducing, dividing and managing the bulk of traffic.