Fiber optic cable is a cable which carries one or more than one optical fibers in it. Elements of this optical fiber are generally individually covered with some plastic coatings and these are stored in a tube so that these cables can be protected from any damage that can be cause by natural environment. When it comes to types of fiber optic cable; mainly fiber optic is categories into three types. One is single mode, other is multimode and the last one is hybrid or composite.
Single Mode Fiber Optic Cable:
Single mode fiber optic cable use laser light transmitters to send information. High light power is needed here because information uses to travel over single mode over long distances. The range that single mode cable can cover is 100KM. This is a cable with diameter which is less than ten times of wavelength of light. This cable use to carry only one ray of light at a time and support only one mode. Instead of wavelength its diameter should be measured in electromagnetic structure. This electromagnetic structure is very useful in understanding the behavior of light that travels in optical fiber cables. This single mode fiber use to support one or more transverse modes. Through these modes, light uses to travel in the fiber. These modes help us in understanding the way through which light waves use to travel through space. The waves of light can have same mode while traveling through space but their frequencies use to be different. Only in single mode fiber optic cable waves use to have different frequencies, with same mode. In single mode fiber optic cable fraction of light energy travels in cladding when it is in bound mode. Usually the core diameter of single mode cable is about 8-10 micrometers. The structure of mode depends upon the wavelength of light that is used in cable and that wavelength decides about the number of additional modes which this fiber will support.
Multi Mode Fiber Optic Cable:
Multimode fiber optic cable LED light transmitters because light do not have to travel the long distances. This light use less power as well because the distance that has to be covered by this cable is much shorter than single mode cable. The range that multi mode cable can cover is 2KM. Multimode fiber cable is used within a building or office etc. Diameter of multi mode fiber optic is greeter than 10 micrometers. In multimode cable rays of lights that travel through the cable are directed along the core of fiber. Only those rays are reflected from the core which meets the core-cladding boundary. Critical angle of those rays is also calculated, but with the help of difference between index of reflection from core and cladding. If any ray of light which meets the boundary but its angle is low then it would be reflected towards cladding material and no information would be transferred through that ray in cable. So all the data on rays with low angle uses to disperse at different paths, and takes time in transfer as well.
Different types of multimode cable are now available for use. Differentiation between these cables in made on the basis of their core and cladding diameters. Some modern types of cable include OM1, OM2, and OM3 and OM4. OM1 to OM3 are based in modal bandwidth. OM4 use to support 125m links.
Hybrid or Composite Optical Cables: when single mode and multimode cables are packet together in a single tube then this type or optical cable is known as hybrid optical cable. This kind of cable can be constructed with different combinations of single and multimode cables. Like 4 multimode and 4 single mode cables can be twisted together as single cable and packed in a protective plastic tube.
Other Types of Optical Cables:
OFC: Optical fiber, conductive
OFN: Optical fiber, nonconductive
OFCG: Optical fiber, conductive, general use
OFNG: Optical fiber, nonconductive, general use
OFCP: Optical fiber, conductive, plenum
OFNP: Optical fiber, nonconductive, plenum
OFCR: Optical fiber, conductive, riser
OFNR: Optical fiber, nonconductive, riser
OPGW: Optical fiber composite overhead ground wire
ADSS: All-Dielectric Self-Supporting