Solar cells are solution to convert sunlight and solar energy into electrical energy without help of chemicals or any other source or power. These cells were first discovered by Becquerel while experimenting with solid electrode and observing its photovoltaic effect. About 50 years later another researcher Charles Frittsperformed a successful experiment of developing first solar cell. He used junction format and coated this semi conductor named as selenium with ultrathin layer of gold. This very first device was not very efficient and was able to absorb only 1% of solar energy.
In 1927, another solar cell was developed but with different materials. With this cell copper was use with semi conductor copper oxide. After this as well, many cells were developed by following the very first design but with different materials. Real blast in this industry was made in 1989, when silicon cells were introduced which collect more energy and also convert it efficiently in electrical energy. You may be surprised to know that you one make solar cell all by your self at home. Lets read and find out how to build solar cell below
How to build your own solar cell:
Solar cells are now easily available in markets all over the world due to rapid growth of this industry from last decade. Different businesses today are using these cells to produce electricity for their machines and some small scale businesses are totally depended on electricity produced with these cells. But some customers avoid purchasing it due to its cost or first investment that they have to make for purchasing it.But It is not tough to build a small solar cell panel at your home easily. You need to follow some steps for this purpose
To start working with a solar cell you need to have
- Copper Sheeting
- Clear Plexiglass/Perpex/Acrylic Sheeting
- Some Thin Wood Strip
- copper Wire
- Duct Tape
- Metal Guillotine
- Electric Ring Hob
Cut a piece of sheet of about 6-8 in, and clean it properly. Now take this sheet and rub it with emery cloth to remove layer of oxidized copper from it. Or you can heat it up on slow flame until it changes its color or use nitric acid on both sides of this sheet. After removing layer of oxide you will come in contact of sheet with orange rust color, this is actual sheet which we need as it carry photosensitive on it and can work as solar cell. Now take a wooden frame and stick this sheet on it with help of duct tape.
Next step is to make electrode, for this purpose you can use salt water, it will help cell in absorbing solar energy. Now take a cooper wire to make connection to produce electricity. Now you need to take a plate of Perspex which will act like cover plate of your cell, you need to stick is as well with duct tape because use of cooper prices can reflect sunlight from the surface. Now connect that wire dip in salt water with this piece, it is important to use thick wire with just few zigzags on it. In this way you can clearly see that what is happening in your solar cell. For good performance of your own cell you have to use a larger conductor.
To end it you can use multiple wires on one side with zigzag patterns on it which will allow entering sunlight slowly to cell and giving better results. Now stick the plate with wires and combine electrodes with space. After combining plate with front module you are done with your solar cell.
As precautionary measures you can add salt water between front section and cooper plate and after that can seal it tightly with duct tape to avoid leakage. Now allow you cell to make direct contact with sunlight and produce electricity for you.