Oil shale which is also known as Kerogen Shale is an organic rock from which shale oil is produced. This is popular as a substitute of crude oil but extracting shale oil from oil shale is costly method than processing of crude oil. Deposits of this oil are found around the world which is after processing converted into useable form. Upon heating oil a chemical process takes place in which pyrolysis turn into vapors, and after cooling it shale oil is separated from it. Another method to get this oil is direct burning in furnace, after which it can be used in chemicals and construction of other materials.
Oil shale is becoming potential source due to increase in prices of crude oil, but its processing is a big threat for environment as well. In processing oil shale major concern is land used, waste disposal, water use, waste-water management, greenhouse-gas emissions and air pollution. Oil shale is easy to find all around the world with all gas and oil resources. Reserve and resource of oil shale are two different terms, Resources” refers to all oil shale deposits, while “reserves”, represents those deposits from which producers can extract oil shale economically using existing technology.
Important facts about tar sand and oil shale:
The tar is a mixture of sand, clay, and water. Producing energy through tar sand is counted as one of the filthiest way as oil is extracted from public land. But this method of generating electricity is destroying species habitat, waste enormous volumes of water, pollute air and water, and degrade and defile vast swaths of land. It is also contributing in global warming which is major concern for every individual nowadays.
Like the kerogen in oil shale, tar sands’ bitumen can be upgraded to synthetic crude oil. These unconventional oil sources follow two extraction methods and none of them it is viable. In one method coal extraction method is followed in which underground, open-pit, or strip mining is performed. In this methods few extra procedure need to be followed to purify it and convert it into useable form. In second method drilling is done. It involves drilling tightly spaced wells across thousands of acres of land and injecting heat into the ground for several years in order to heat the kerogen so it can be released for further upgrading and refining.
Producing oil from tar sand is worst for climate changes than coal as incredible amount of energy is used to extract oil from stones. According to some estimates, production of every barrel of shale oil sends 50 percent more CO2 into the atmosphere than the production of one barrel of crude oil.
Waste of water for processing of tar sand is also important to notice. With passage of time water is becoming rare, and in purifying oil shale large amount of it get waste each year. Depending on the extraction method, each barrel of synthetic crude uses two to three barrels of water, and considerable natural gas. Which is destroying aquatic life and its development is bad for infrastructure of boreal forest.
Greenhouse gas emission is also linked with development of oil from tar sand. Its production is counted as main reason today fro uncertain climate change issues. Producing a barrel of Tars Sand oil emits three times more greenhouse gases than producing a barrel of conventional oil. According to studies, if same level of production continues for 2020, tar sand will release twice greenhouse gas than today. To protect this world, developed countries are required to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions to 25%-40% below 1990 levels by 2020.