What is Carbon Nanotubes
Carbon nanotubes are found in 1985.Fullerenes played vital role in discovery of carbon nanotubes. The molecule discovered was named as C60. Its composition was similar to the graphite atom which was already present but this was a new composition because it has better properties then graphite. Later on 1990 it was proposed that C60 composition can be produced easily with the help of arc evaporation setups in all the laboratories. the famous Japanese researcher Sumio Lijima discovered the fullerene related carbon nanotubes in 1991.they were double layered tubes having diameter about 30nm and were closed form both ends. This was a major discovery which supported a lot in the electronics, mechanics and chemistry.
Properties of cabon nanotubes
1. Nano carbon tubes have many unique properties high makes them superior then another nano structures discovered. The most dominant property of nano carbon tubes is their highest strength and stiffness in weight ratio. This wonderful property made scientists and researchers to consider nano carbon tubes is many fields of work.
2. Another useful characteristic of carbon nanotubes is their easy penetration is the cellular structures such as membrane. They look like smallest needles so it’s a possibility that they can function like a needle in cells.
3. Carbon nanotubes also have unique and outstanding electronic properties. Their electrical resistance changes randomly when existing molecules are attached with other carbon atoms. Organizations are utilizing this property of carbon nanotubes in building high performance sensors that can detect chemical vapors in the air even.
The above properties of carbon nanotubes are very useful for developing many extra ordinary machines in today’s world. For example NASA space craft centre is using carbon nanotubes to lighten the weight of their space crafts, medical researchers are utilizing the properties to directly deliver drugs the infected are from cancer and many more applications are still under development.
Structure of cabon nanotubes
Nanotubes have complex structure with sp² bonding. Each of its atoms is attached to its neighbors similar to the graphite atom. They form a sequence of layer when seen together. It has dual particle s in its structure which is divided into three classes. Specific terms are used to represent nanotubes classes according to the arrangements. The first one is known as “armchair” and present at the top left, the middle one is called “Zig Zag” and it has high symmetry. The third and last one is known as the “Chiral” which mean two mirror effect forms. This kind of structure is not easily understandable .Sufficient knowledge is required to properly understand the architecture of carbon nanotubes.
Some Applications of Carbon nanotubes.
Carbon nanotubes have diverse properties to be used in several work area. some of the developing applications are listed below.
1) Breast Cancer Tumor Destruction
Nanotubes are used to destroy the breast cancer tumors. They play like an antibody that is provided by the chicken. The antibody along with nanotubes is attracted to the proteins by the cancer cell in the body and nanotubes absorb laser beam killing the bacteria of tumor.
2) Wind Mill Blades
Nano tubes are also used in the wind mill blades because of there low weight to better wind and produce more electricity at faster rate.
3) Air Craft Stress Reduction
Nanotubes are also used in the space and air crafts to reduce the weight and stress of the various components working tighter. This has collectively reduced the weight of aircraft also.